Căn bệnh Hà Lan (Dutch disease)

Dành cho các bạn sinh viên năm 2:

Xuất khẩu hàng hóa (Thông thường là xuất khẩu tài nguyên – Trường hợp Hà Làn, là xuất khẩu gas) khiến giá nội tệ tăng, do đó làm giảm tính cạnh tranh của nền kinh tế, dẫn đến thâm hụt tài khoản vãng lai và khiến nền kinh tế phụ thuộc lớn hơn vào hàng hóa xuất khẩu đấy.

Xem ví dụ trong bài: It’s only natural
Commodities alone are not enough to sustain flourishing economies

“Second, many economists worry about “Dutch disease”, a term coined by this newspaper in 1977 to describe the impact of a North Sea gas bonanza on the economy of the Netherlands. This malady involves commodity exports driving up the value of the currency, making other parts of the economy less competitive, leading to a current-account deficit and even greater dependence on commodities. This matters all the more because mining and hydrocarbons are capital-intensive businesses, generating relatively few jobs.

The commodity boom, together with capital inflows attracted by better economic prospects, has already pushed up the value of some of the region’s currencies. For example, São Paulo seems extraordinarily expensive to any visitor. The strength of the Brazilian currency, the real, worries officials and industrialists.”


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